ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE DUROBRIVAE OF ANTONINUS
1 A Map from actual survey, shewing the situation of various Roman Villae, Potteries, Furnaces, and other Antiquities, explored and examinedby E.T.Artis, in the vicinity of Durobrivae, the modern Castor. 2 The Elevation of an excavated Roman Building, under the lane and adjacent hill north of the church at Castor 3 Design of a Mosaic Pavement restored, marked A, Plan 1. 4
Fragment of a Mosaic Pavement, discovered April 9th, 1821, marked A, Plan 1.
5 A View of the Baths and Site of the Roman Buildings at Castor, west of the church. 6 Plan of the Roman Baths at Castor, discovered Nov.7th, 1821. Nos. 1 & 2. Ash Pits. 3, 4, 5, 6. Hypocausts. 7, 8, 9. Cells. 10 Cold Bath. 11. Part of the same discovered in the 17th century. 12. Probably the Dressing-room to the Cold Bath. 13. The Fire Place, or Furnace to the Hypocaust. 7 Fragment of a Mosaic Pavement, on the north side of the church-yard at Castor, opened and examined Dec. 22d, 1827; but in consequence of several interments the extent could not be ascertained. 8 A Plan of part of the Roman Buildings at Castor, lying east of the church, in which the Hypocaust is constructed on an inclined plane, marked B, Plan 1. No. 1. Furnace of the Hypocaust. 2 & 4. Some of the Piers intended to support the floor above. 3. A Mosaic Pavement, figured in Pl. 4. 5. Supports of the floor over the furnace of the Hypocaust. 6 & 7. Pavements destroyed. 9 Antiquities from various buildings. Nos. 2, 3, 4, & 7. Flues, or Funnels, for conveying heat through the walls, &c. 1. A Tile used in covering the Hypocausts. 5. A ditto used in forming the floors of Sepulchres, &c. 6, 10, 11, are Bricks of various dimensions, used in the square columns which support the floors of such rooms as are warmed by the Hypocausts. 8. An Arch Brick. 9. An Earthen Pipe. 10 The excavated remains of a Roman Building in the farm-yard, south of the church at Castor. 11 Fig. 1 The Ground Plan of a Roman Building, under the lane and adjacent hill, north of the church, marked D, Plan 1. Fig. 2. Plan of a Temple, marked C, Plan 1. (A). Transverse section of the line (B C), fig. 2. 12 A Mosaic Pavement, discovered at Castor, in 1821, marked E, plan 1. Part of the centre was destroyed, some years since, in sinking a well, but is now restored, and the pavement relaid in the ante-room to the Dairy at Milton. 13
A Plan of the Village of Castor, in its present state, shewing the site of the excavated remains of Roman buildings, discovered by E. T. Artis.
EXPLANATIONS.-A. A Mosaic Pavement, see Plates 3 and 4. B.A Hypocaust and Building, see Plate 5. C. A temple, D. A Building, see Plate 11. E. A Mosaic Pavement, see Plate 12. F. A Mosaic Pavement, see Plate 7. G. The Baths, see Plate 6. H. A Tesselated Pavement.
14 Nos 1, 2. Moddled arched Bricks of the Oven Furnace, Fig. 3. Plate 40. 3 & 4. A Section and Brick of the Oven, Fig. 3. Plate 40. 5. Fragment of an Altar of Allwalton Linch Marble. 6, 7, 8. Sculptured Stone. 9, 10. A concave Mill composed of perforated Clay burnt. 11. A ditto of Pudding-Stone. 12. A ditto of Bur. 15 Fig. 1, was discovered in removing a part of the old wall on the north side of the fortified ground at Chasterton. 2, is from the excavations in Normangate field. 3, was discovered on clearing the dyke on the west side of the ground in which Fig. 1. was found. 16 A Plan of the remains of Roman Buildings on Mill Hill, Castor Field. A. is a Mosaic Pavement figured in Pl. 19. B. A Building on a larger scale in Pl. 20. C. A Hypocaust and building figured in Plate 22. D. A Roman Pavement, figured in Plate 21. E. A strong Roman Building, with Hypocaust. 17 The remains of Roman Buildings on Mill Hill, commanding a north-west view of the country. A. The Fortified Ground called the Castles. B. The River Nen. C. The Old Roman Road. D. Sutton Field. E. Normangate Field. 18 The Design of a Mosaic Pavement restored, marked A. Plan 3. 19 The Fragment of a Mosaic Pavement, discovered on Mill Hill, Castor Field, March 25th, 1822, marked A. in Plan 3. on a scale of one inch and a half to the foot. 20 Plan of a Roman Building on Mill Hill, Castor Field, marked B, Plan 3, excavated in April 1882. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. Hypocausts. No. 5. A Tesselated Pavement. 6. A horizontal Flue, passing into No. 7, a perpendicular one. No. 8. A small Room warmed by flues in the walls only, and entered from 9, by descending steps 10. No. 11. is a Human Cranium, and part of a Skeleton, with materials that appear to have formed the basis of Floor 12. 21 A Mosaic Pavement discovered on Mill Hill in 1822, marked D, Plan 3. Pl. 16. 22 The Remains of a Building with Hypocaust, marked C, Pl.16 excavated April 1882. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Flues. H. The Furnace. I. J. Tesselated Pavements. 23 A Plan of the Castles, or fortified ground through which the Old Roman Road passes. A.A. Stone Coffins. B. Skeletons. C.C. Potters' Kilns. D.D.D.D. Roman Building. E. A Tumulus. 24 This Pavement was discovered Dec. 11th 1827, in one of the fields on the south side of Helpstone, called Pail Grounds, adjoining Oxey Wood, and Wood Lane. 25 Illustrations of Roman Iron Works, near Wansford, (see Pl. 1.) Dig. 1. Shows the ancient method of Roasting the Ore, preparatory to its being consigned to the Furnace. 2. Part of a Smelting Furnace. A. A. A. A. I the Flag, lying as it ran from the furnace. B. The Channel for conveying the metal to the moulds. C. The Moulds. 3. One of the Hearths upon which the Ore was Roasted. 4. A transverse Section of a Furnace, for making the glaze used by the Ro,an Potters. 5. An Elevation of the latter. 6. A Specimen of Grey Honey-comb Ore. 7. A ditto of Chocolate Ore; the bed of the former has been partially worked by Roman Miners, and the latter very extensively; they were also both employed by the Roman Potters as Pigments. 26 Roman Masonry, &c. Fig. 1. is from part of a strong building on the fortified ground at Chasterton. A, is a white Tesserer, which appears to have formed the lining of the lower part of the room. B. Cement formed with brick, lime, and river sand. C. Cement formed with a less quantity of brick, and the addition of Alwalton Linch marble in small fragments, with which cement the walls are all composed. D. Thin slabs of Alwalton Linch marble, forming the lining to a second room. Fig, 2, Section of a floor and Hypocaust on the same ground. A. B. Cement floors. E, C, supports of the same, formed with sixteen inch Roman brick. Fig 3, the entrance to a Hypocaust, at the back of the church at Castor. A, Fig. 4, part of the wall figured in Pl.32. B, the Bath. C, the Watercourse. D, the Cauldron. E, The Hearth of the Furnace. 27 Substructure and Floor of a Kiln supposed to have been employed in the manufactory of the fine red ware of the Romans. Fig.3, 4, 5, and 6. Illustrations of a Kiln upon a similar principle, recently discovered in Heiligenberg in Silicia. 28 Roman Pottery discovered Nov. 1827, near Waternewton. The relief Fig. 1, represents a Hound pursuing a species of deer. Fig. 2. A Stag Hunt. 29 No. 1. A gilt Mace from Sandpit field near Waternewton. 2, 3, and 4. Polishing Stones used in the manufactory of Roman earthen vessels. 5 and 6. Weights. 30 Fragment of Roman Pottery in relief, discovered at Waternewton in Nov. 1827. Fig. 1. Copper Colour. 2, 3, and 4. Lead Colour 31 Nos.1, 2, 7, and 8, are Antiquities discovered in clearing the remains of an ancient Tumulus. 3, 4, 5, 6, and 9, are from various excavations at Ford Green. 32 A Fresco Painting, from the wall of a Roman Bath in Normangate field, marked A. in the general plan, 1826. 33 A View of the Remains of a Roman Villa in Sutton field, opposite Waternewton. 34 The Remains of two Roman Villas at Waternewton. 1. The Tesselated Pavements are shown by a light tint; those that are plain appear to have been Mosaic, and those with a strong tint are rubble floors; the Pavements in Fig. 1. are undoubtedly those mentioned by Morton as being a part of a paved road which led from Waternewton to Normangate field; see D. Pl1. Fig. 2, is situated on the South side of the North Road at Waternewton; see E. Pl. 1. 35 Plan of the North-east side of a Roman Building in Sutton field. 1. Part of a semicircular Room. 2, 3, 5, and 9. Fragments of Mosaic Pavements. 4, 14, and 15. Rooms containing Tesselated Pavements. 6. A spacious Room, the floor of which appears to have been supported on square brick columns, probably a precaution against the wet which this part of the building would be subject to in floods, it being unconnected with the Hypocaust 11, by which the other rooms, 12, 13, 10, and 8, were warmed. 17, is a winding drain which conducted the waste water to a bed of Gravel. 16. The Well. 7, A Concave Floor. 18. One side of the principal entrance. 36 No. 1. Brass, and has probably been the mouth-piece to a wind instrument. 2. Part of a Bone Whistle or Pipe, which was much longer when found. 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, are of brass. 4. Iron, with an ornamented bone handle, which was discovered in the parish of Castor, when excavating in the years of 1821, 1822, and 1823. 37 Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7. Spring Bolts, Hinges, &c. discovered by the men when clearing the remains of Roman Buildings, in the parished of Castor and Sutton. No. 4. An Axe-head, found on the Mosaic Pavement, Pl. 4. 38 Moulds and Cruicibles used by Roman coiners. Fig. 1, A white Crucible, supposed to contain a sufficient quantity of metal for one complete set of moulds, which Fig. 2, represents at the time of casting. Fig.3, is a section of Fig. 2.-A. The Shaft or Grove which conveys the metal to the moulds B. B. This grove or shaft is formaed by a doulbe column of moulds being placed or packed with notches opposite each other. C. C. The Funnel. D. D. A wrapper of clay, which envelopes the moulds, after they are packed. Fig. 4. A red Crucible, two thirds less than the original. Fig. 3. A Mould, with the coin of Severus remaining in it. 39 A Plan of that part of the Pottery through which the pld Roman road passes, whowing the site to have been occupied by the Potters, previous the formation of the old Roman road or forty foot way. Fig. 1. is a Section of the line A. B. and marked upon the Plan. Fig.2, a, a, a, a, a, a, a, Ovens. B. B. Stoves. C. Baking Hearth. d, d, d. Stones for grinding. E. E. Clay in a prepared state. f. A square Well. 40 Roman Remains, discovered on the site of a Pottery in Dec. 1822, in Normangate field, Castor. No. 1. The remains of an Oven, in which the vessels figured in Plates 53 and 54, with several others, were found. A. The present surface. B. The formaer surface. C. The Oven Mouth. No. 2. Section of the line D. D. in No. 1. E. E. shews the Section of the Cave thirty-three inches in diameter, in which the vessels are baked. No 3 The remains of an Oven or Kiln. A. The present surface. B. The former Surface. C. The Oven Mouth. D. The Floor upon which the vessels are placed. F. The Substructure. No. 4. Section of the line F. F. in No. 3. G. Support of the Floor. 41 Miscellaneous articles, discovered in excavating the remains of Roman buildings, in the parish of Castor. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, are of Iron. Nos. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14. 15, 16, 25, and 26, are of Brass. No. 11. Silver. No. 12. White Metal. Nos. 13, 17, 18, of Bone or Ivory. No. 19. Jasper. Nos. 20, 21, 22, 23. Glass. No 24. A Weight. 42 Remains of Instruments, found on the site of the Roman Pottery at Castor in 1822 and 1823, some of which have probably been employed as modellin tools in Manufactory. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 9, are of Bone or Ivory; 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, of Brass; 7, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, of Iron. 43 Iron instruments discovered in various excavations at Castor in 1821, and 1822. Nos. 1, 2, 5, at Ford Green; 3, 4, 6, 8, at Castor; 7, 9, 10, in Normangate Field. 44 Fragment of Earthen Vessels, discovered in excavating the remains of a Roman Pottery. No. 1, is of fine red ware, in bas relief. No. 2, Ash coloured, the figures indented. 45 Nos. 1, 2, and 3, Are variations of the Vitruvian Scroll, found upon Roman earthen vessels. 46 Fragments of Vessels bearing dedications. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, are on the lip or brim of the white stone ware; 2, On the handle of a Bottle; 7 to 18, are the fine red. 47 Earthen Vessels, discovered on the site of the Pottery, in Normangate Field. No. 1. A cream coloured Bottle; 2, A red Cup; 3, A Lamp; 4, A dark brown Bottle, 1826 48 Fragments of fine red Ware in relief, collected in excavating the remains of a Roman Pottery in the parish of Castor. No. 1 to 6. Bason shaped. 7. Wall-sided. C. D. Rivets of solder with which the vessels had been mended. A. B. E. Holes to receive the rivets. 49 No. 1, is part of a Roman Earthen Vessel of the white stone ware. 2, and 3, are parts of Moulded Heads, probably intended as ornaments for Urns. 4. An engine-turned Patera from a Roman Building in Sutton field. 50 Roman Vessels of the fine red ware. No. 1. Bason Shaped. 2. Wall-sided, from Normangate Field, near Castor, discovered in 1821. 51 Earthen Vessels, discovered Feb. 1826, when excavating the remains of a Roman building in a field on the East side of Waternewton, and South of the present North road. No. 1. Dark Slate colour. No. 2. Black. 52 Fragments of Roman Earthen Vessels, of the fine red ware in relief, discovered Feb 20, 1823, when clearing the remains of Roman buildings, in Normangate field. 53 Roman Urns, found in a Potter's Oven Dec. 25, 1822, in Normangate field. No. 1, is of the red brown ware. 2. Blue Metallic Lustre; the ornament, a whit body. 54 Roman Earthen Vessels, discovered in a Potter's oven, Dec. 25, 1822, in Normangate field. No. 1, is the Brown Metallic Lustre. No. 2, and 3, white Stone Ware; the coloured ornaments appear to have been effected by a metalic solution. No. 4. Fragment of an Urn, in bas-relief. 55 Antiquities discovered with human skeletons, in a field on the North side of the road between Orton Longville and Woodston, near Peterborough. Fig 1,2,3,7, & 8, are Togæ Fibulæ of brass. 6. A ditto chased and gilt. 4 & 5. Probably appendages to some part of the garment. 56 Antiquities discovered when opening the old river at the junction of the Nen, near Horsey, with the Log Canoes figured in Plate LVII. Fig. 1, 2, 3, & 5, are Iron. 4. A Brass Spear-head. 57 Illustrations of the Log Canoes discovered in the bog which forms the bank of the old River, at the junction of the Nen, at Horsey, near Peterborough. Fig. 1. A Horizontal View. 2. A Side View of the same. 3, is part of a similar Canoe composed of two Logs. 4, is a transverse section of the line A. B. Fig. 1. 5, is a ditto of the line C. D. Fig. 1. 6, is a ditto of the line E. F. Fig. 1. A Canoe of this description was found at Anglebridge in 1818, by a man cutting a dyke; there is also one of the same description, but more modern, in the British Museum, that was brought from the Sandwich Islands by Captain Cook. 58 Antiquities discovered in the Bog, with the Canoes figured in the preceding Plate. Figs. 1, 2, 5, & 6, are probably fishing Instruments. 3, & 4, Iron Spear-heads. 59 A Roman Pavement found at Cotterstock near Oundle, Northamptonshire. 60 A Mosaic Pavement discovered in a field on the west side of Cotterstock
Pl. 13. for Tesserated, read Tesselated.
Pl. 26. for Tesser, read Tesserer.
Pl. 39. for a, read and.
Pl. 43 for Foar Green, read Ford Green;
and for Norminton, read Normangate.
Pl. 53 for Normington read Normangate.
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